Well, as UncleBob mentioned, you do need one to fill out an I-9. So, in order to get (and, in some cases, even apply) for just about any job, you need ID. I would think that right there would be all of the reasons one would need, but yes, as you pointed out, opening a bank account and driving a car are two others. Purchasing things like tobacco, alcohol, guns, and cell phone contracts also require ID, though with tobacco and alcohol, that is not always the case.
On a related note, a bank account is another thing that every responsible adult should have.
In this wonderful age of the internet, I haven't had to fill out an I-9 when applying....ever, I think. And while I probably filled out an I-9 form before to work, I don't recall having to whip out my ID.
Regarding tobacco, alcohol, and guns, those aren't necessary for functioning in society. And just a guess, but one of those semi-disposable phones you can pick up from Safeway or CVS, that don't have a contract, I don't think they require ID either. (If so, please correct me.)
Finally, while every responsible adult should have a bank account, the average household and credit card debt in the US tells me a lot of adults aren't that responsible. Also, a family probably only needs one bank account. Not every member needs to get it, just one. So only one ID needed per family. Or if you're living paycheck to paycheck, a bank account is almost useless. (And what are the demographics of people who live from paycheck to paycheck?)
None of this is being said to advocate a stance, except that I think that a photo ID plays a much smaller role to functioning in society than you think.